Down-regulation of protein kinase C& inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression through IRF1
Leppänen, Tiina; Korhonen, Riku; Laavola, Mirka; Nieminen, Riina; Tuominen, Raimo K; Moilanen, Eeva (2013)
Tuominen, Raimo K
Plos ONE 8 1
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In inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial products induce the production of high amounts of NO by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in inflammatory and tissue cells. NO is an effector molecule in innate immunity, and it also has regulatory and pro-inflammatory/destructive effects in the inflammatory process. Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) is an important signaling protein regulating B lymphocyte functions, but less is known about its effects in innate immunity and inflammatory gene expression. In the present study we investigated the role of PKCδ in the regulation of iNOS expression in inflammatory conditions. NO production and iNOS expression were induced by LPS or a combination of cytokines IFNγ, IL-1β, and TNFα. Down-regulation of PKCδ by siRNA and inhibition of PKCδ by rottlerin suppressed NO production and iNOS expression in activated macrophages and fibroblasts. PKCδ directed siRNA and inhibition of PKCδ by rottlerin suppressed also the expression of transcription factor IRF1, possibly through inhibition of STAT1 activation. Accordingly, down-regulation of IRF1 by siRNA reduced iNOS expression in response to inflammatory stimuli. In addition, inhibition of PKCδ showed anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenan induced paw inflammation in mice as did iNOS inhibitor L-NIL. These results suggest that inhibitors of PKCδ have anti-inflammatory effects in disease states complicated by enhanced NO production through iNOS pathway.
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