A postmortem study suggests a revision of the dual-hit hypothesis of Parkinson's disease
Borghammer, Per; Just, Mie Kristine; Horsager, Jacob; Skjærbæk, Casper; Raunio, Anna; Kok, Eloise H; Savola, Sara; Murayama, Shigeo; Saito, Yuko; Myllykangas, Liisa; Van Den Berge, Nathalie (2022-11-30)
Just, Mie Kristine
Kok, Eloise H
Van Den Berge, Nathalie
Julkaisun pysyvä osoite on
The dual-hit hypothesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) originally postulated that a neurotropic pathogen leads to formation of α-synuclein pathology in the olfactory bulb (OB) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and then invades the brain from these two entry points. Little work has been conducted to validate an important underlying premise for the dual-hit hypothesis, namely that the initial Lewy pathology does arise simultaneously in the OB and the enteric nervous system (ENS) plexuses and DMV at the earliest disease stage. We conducted a focused re-analysis of two postmortem datasets, which included large numbers of mild Lewy body disease (LBD) cases. We found that cases with α-synuclein pathology restricted to the peripheral autonomic nervous system and/or lower brainstem (early body-first LBD cases) very rarely had any OB pathology, suggesting that Lewy pathology commonly arises in the ENS without concomitant involvement of the OB. In contrast, cases with mild amygdala-predominant Lewy pathology (early brain-first LBD cases) nearly always showed OB pathology. This is compatible with the first pathology being triggered in the OB or amygdala followed by secondary spreading to connected structures, but without early involvement of the ENS or lower brainstem. These observations support that the pathologic process starts in either the olfactory bulb or the ENS, but rarely in the olfactory bulb and gut simultaneously. More studies on neuropathological datasets are warranted to reproduce these findings. The agreement between the revised single-hit hypothesis and the recently proposed brain-first vs. body-first model of LBD is discussed.
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