Radium-223 dichloride treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in Finland : A real-world evidence multicenter study
Hyväkkä, Anniina; Kääriäinen, Okko Sakari; Utriainen, Tapio; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Mattila, Kalle; Reinikainen, Petri; Sormunen, Jorma; Jääskeläinen, Minna; Auvinen, Päivi; Minn, Heikki; Sundvall, Maria (2023-02)
Kääriäinen, Okko Sakari
02 / 2023
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Background: Radium-233 dichloride is an alpha emitter that specifically targets bone metastases in prostate cancer. Results of a previously reported phase III randomized trial showed survival benefit for radium-223 compared to best supportive care in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with bone metastases. However, real-world data are also needed with wider inclusion criteria. Methods: We report results of a retrospective multicenter study including all patients with metastatic CRPC treated with radium-223 in all five university hospitals in Finland since the introduction of the treatment. We identified 160 patients who had received radium-223 in Finland in 2014–2019. Results: The median overall survival (OS) was 13.8 months (range 0.5–57 months), and the median real-world progression-free survival (rwPFS) was 4.9 months (range 0.5–29.8 months). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values within the normal range before and during the radium-223 treatment or the reduction of elevated ALP to normal range during treatment were associated with better OS when compared to elevated ALP values before and during treatment (p < 0.0001). High prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (≥100 μg/L) before radium-223 treatment was associated with poor OS compared to low PSA level (<20 μg/L) (p = 0.0001). Most patients (57%) experienced pain relief. Pain relief indicated better OS (p = 0.002). Radium-223 treatment was well tolerated. Toxicity was mostly low grade. Only 12.5% of the patients had grade III–IV adverse events, most commonly anemia, neutropenia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: Radium-223 was well tolerated in routine clinical practice, and most patients achieved pain relief. Pain relief, ALP normalization, lower baseline PSA, and PSA decrease during radium-223 treatment were prognostic for better survival. The efficacy of radium-223 in mCRPC as estimated using OS was comparable to earlier randomized trial in this retrospective real-world study. Our results support using radium-223 for mCRPC patients with symptomatic bone metastases even in the era of new-generation androgen receptor-targeted agents.
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