Cow's milk allergy in infancy and later development of type 1 diabetes : nationwide case-cohort study
Lamminsalo,Anni; Lundqvist,Annamari; Virta,Lauri J; Gissler,Mika; Kaila,Minna; Metsälä,Johanna; Virtanen,Suvi M (2021-01-19)
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BAKGROUND: It is suggested that early intake of cow's milk could be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Further, the different immunological background, gives a suggestion of an inverse relationship for the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the association between cow's milk allergy (CMA) and the risk of T1DM in a register-based case-cohort study. METHODS: Data were obtained from Finnish nationwide health registers. The study included all children born in Finland between January 01, 1986 and December 31, 2008 and diagnosed with T1DM before the age of 16 years (n = 7754). A 10% random sample from each birth year cohort was selected as a reference cohort (n = 137,798). T1DM, CMA, and asthma were defined based on valid special reimbursements for the costs of drugs/special formulas needed in the treatment of the diseases. Child's sex, birth decade, asthma, maternal diabetes and asthma, smoking during pregnancy, and previous deliveries were considered as confounding factors. Time-dependent, weighted Cox regression was applied for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Children with CMA had an increased risk of developing T1DM in fully adjusted model (HR = 1.17; 95% CI 1.02-1.34), but the association was no longer observed when including the use of special infant formulas in the definition of CMA in the sensitivity analysis (HR = 1.11; 95% CI 0.92-1.32). CMA was associated with an increased risk of T1DM in children without asthma (HR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.10-1.47), but not in children with asthma (HR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.92-1.27). CONCLUSION: Children with CMA may have an increased risk of T1DM.
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