Effects of sensor type and sensor location on signal quality in bed mounted ballistocardiographic heart rate and respiration monitoring
Vehkaoja, Antti; Kontunen, Anton; Lekkala, Jukka (2015)
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Sleeping is a crucial part of our circadian rhythm and the quality of sleep has substantial impact on the quality of life in general and the overall well-being of a person. That is why sleep related physiological measurements have been in the focus of many scientific studies along the years, and why a large number of different measurement methods have been developed for this purpose. The ability to monitor heart rate respiration without any sensors or electrodes being directly attached to the body is extremely useful especially in long-term monitoring and it allows automated daily measurements without any medical staff present. This is the reason why ballistocardiographic force sensors and accelerometers have been introduced alongside electrocardiography (ECG) and thermistors or respiration belts as a means to monitor the heart rate and respiration during sleep. While ECG remains as the most reliable and accurate method for heart rate monitoring, the development of unobtrusive monitoring methods has improved to the point where the commercialization of such sleep monitoring systems has been possible. In this paper, the signals of five sensors and sensor placement combinations for measuring physiological parameters from a sleeping person are evaluated and compared in terms of their measurement sensitivities and waveform quality. The sensors are accelerometer and film type force sensors made of PVDF and EMFi material placed under the mattress topper and PVDF and EMFi sensors placed under the bed posts.
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