Skin-conformable printed supercapacitors and their performance in wear
Railanmaa,Anna; Soltani,Ayat; Lehtimäki,Suvi; Pournoori,Nazanin; Keskinen,Jari; Hokka,Mikko; Lupo,Donald (2020)
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Wearable sensors and electronic systems are of great interest these days, but their viability depends on the availability of compatible energy storage solutions. Such sensors can either be integrated into clothing or attached directly to the skin, each case presenting a different set of requirements for the devices. In this work, we examine the performance of printed supercapacitors while attached to the skin. The devices are manufactured from benign materials, such as water, carbon and sodium chloride, and worn on the forearm or chest for 24 h for durability testing. The supercapacitors exhibit excellent mechanical durability and stay well attached under all test conditions. Electrically, the supercapacitors exhibit reliable capacitive function throughout the test period; other key parameters such as equivalent series resistance and leakage current are affected but to a minimal extent. The movement and deformation of the supercapacitor show good compatibility with the skin, as shown by the Digital Image Correlation full field strain measurements on and around the capacitor. The supercapacitors deform with the skin and do not hinder normal movement or function.
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