Optimization of photogenerated charge carrier lifetimes in ald grown tio2 for photonic applications
Khan,Ramsha; Ali-Löytty,Harri; Saari,Jesse; Valden,Mika; Tukiainen,Antti; Lahtonen,Kimmo; Tkachenko,Nikolai V. (2020-08-10)
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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films are widely employed for photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications where the long lifetime of charge carriers is a paramount requirement for the device efficiency. To ensure the long lifetime, a high temperature treatment is used which restricts the applicability of TiO2 in devices incorporating organic or polymer components. In this study, we exploited low temperature (100–150◦ C) atomic layer deposition (ALD) of 30 nm TiO2 thin films from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium. The deposition was followed by a heat treatment in air to find the minimum temperature requirements for the film fabrication without compromising the carrier lifetime. Femto-to nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the lifetimes, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was employed for structural analysis. The optimal result was obtained for the TiO2 thin films grown at 150◦ C and heat-treated at as low as 300◦ C. The deposited thin films were amorphous and crystallized into anatase phase upon heat treatment at 300–500◦ C. The average carrier lifetime for amorphous TiO2 is few picoseconds but increases to >400 ps upon crystallization at 500◦ C. The samples deposited at 100◦ C were also crystallized as anatase but the carrier lifetime was <100 ps.
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