Noncontact Respiration Monitoring during Sleep with Microwave Doppler Radar
Zakrzewski, Mari; Vehkaoja, Antti; Joutsen, Atte S.; Palovuori, Karri T.; Vanhala, Jukka J. (2015-10-01)
Joutsen, Atte S.
Palovuori, Karri T.
Vanhala, Jukka J.
Julkaisun pysyvä osoite on
This paper demonstrates the measurement of respiration waveform during sleep with a noncontact radar sensor. Instead of measuring only the respiration rate, the methods that allow monitoring the absolute respiration displacement were studied. Absolute respiration displacement can in theory be measured with a quadrature microwave Doppler radar sensor and using the nonlinear demodulation as the channel combining method. However, in this paper, relative respiration displacement measures were used as a reference. This is the first time that longer data sets have been analyzed successfully with the nonlinear demodulation method. This paper consists of whole-night recordings of three patients in an uncontrolled environment. The reference respiration data were obtained from a full polysomnography recorded simultaneously. The feasibility of the nonlinear demodulation in a real-life setting has been unclear. However, this paper shows that it is successful most of the time. The coverage of successfully demodulated radar data was ∼ 58 %-78%. The use of the nonlinear demodulation is not possible in the following cases: 1) if the chest wall displacement is too small compared with the wavelength of the radar; 2) if the radar data do not form an arc-like shape in the $IQ$ -plot; or 3) if there are large movement artifacts present in the data. Both in academic literature and in commercial radar devices, the data are processed based on the presumption that it forms either an arc or a line in the IQ -plot. Our measurements show that the presumption is not always valid.
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